The Structure of Google Analytics

When you have successfully install your Google Analytics Tracking Code (GATC) your browser executes a HTTP Get request to the GA data server.

This Get request is called a GA Beacon, GA Payload, Server Call or a simply a Hit.

GA components on the client side:
-Tracking tag
-Custom tags for advance data collection

GA components on the server side
-properties / View configurations
-user management

Its important when you first setup GA to immediately create a second view of your data,  If you make a mistake with your setup there is no backward filling that missing data.  And avoid having your account penalized, no personally identifiable info is allowed to be collect.  If done you may lose your account.

Your basic GA daseboard has dimensions for various purposes:

Base data:
-Page Views

Web Design and Development:
-Page engagements
-Browsers and technologies
-Devices types